Question: What do Yoda and Gerard Manley-Hopkins have in common?
Answer: The speech of both is characterised by anastrophe.
There’s a fairly good chance that you’re familiar with the Star Wars films and therefore aware that Yoda tends to speak with a non-standard word order (“Help you I can” or “When 900 years old you reach, look as good you will not”). It is less likely that you knew that anastrophe is the technical term for this.
I was first introduced to this term a few weeks ago when my brother, Wulf, was visiting me and happened to mention it in conversation. Being a fan both of the small, green Jedi Master and of obscure words, I was delighted to learn this word and resolved to slip it into conversation at the first available opportunity. Unfortunately I forgot it before I had a chance to do so, but Wulf wrote about the word in his blog the other day.
To save me forgetting it again, I decided I would write about it here (with links both to Wulf’s post and the Wikipedia article on the subject, which you’ll find above).
The term “anastrophe” is a Greek word (ἀναστροφή in its native alphabet) meaning “a turning back or about”. As a technical term in English (and a number of other languages which have also borrowed it from Greek, with slightly varying transliterations) it refers to deviations from the usual word order of a given language for the sake of emphasis.
The Wikipedia article remarks that Yoda, as a non-native speaker of English (or rather, Galactic Basic, which is represented by English in the Star Wars films) may have been using non-standard word order by mistake rather than on purpose, so his speech may not technically class as anastrophe. Interestingly though, he does occasionally use standard word order. Sometimes it seems to be for special emphasis (e.g. “You must not go!” when warning Luke against going to help his friends in Cloud City before completing his Jedi training), which suggests that it could be a kind of inverted anastrophe. At other times there doesn’t seem to be any special emphasis and one is led to suspect that the scriptwriters were just being inconsistent (or, if the weird word order is due to Yoda’s imperfect grasp of Basic and, presumably, the influence of his first language, perhaps it is intentional that he sometimes gets it right and sometimes wrong; I’m sure my Welsh is a bit like that!).
The other example of an anastrophe user I mentioned was Gerard Manley Hopkins, a 19th century English poet who, according to Wikipedia, was particularly identified with the use of anastrophe. He was quite experimental compared to many poets of his time and made several (fairly successful, IMHO) attempts to adapt the Welsh-language poetic techniques of cynghanedd to English verse, which is what especially attracts me to his work.
Here is just one example of a line from Hopkins, taken from The Wreck of the Deutschland (one of his longest and best-known works):
To the shrouds they took,—they shook in the hurling and horrible airs.
This line illustrates both anastrophe – in the rearrangement of “they took to the shrouds” – and cynghanedd-like features — the repetition of the “sh” sound and the “took” – “shook” internal rhyme, and possibly also the alliteration of “hurling” and “horrible”. It certainly works well, at least within the context of the poem.